!tsc (hook RDTSC/RDTSCP instruction execution)

Description of '!tsc' command in HyperDbg.

Command

!tsc

Syntax

!tsc [pid (hex value)] [core (hex value)] [imm (yes|no)] [event options]

Description

Triggers when the debugging machine executes RDTSC or RDTSCP instructions in any execution level (kernel-mode or user-mode).

Using this command is not allowed in transparent-mode. You should not use this command in transparent-mode as it won't trigger any event.

Parameters

[pid (hex value)]

Optional value to trigger the event in just a specific process. Add pid xx to your command; thus, the command will be executed if the process id is equal to xx. If you don't specify this option, then by default, you receive events on all processes.

[core (hex value)]

Optional value to trigger the event in just a specific core. Add core xx to your command thus command will be executed if core id is equal to xx. If you don't specify this option, then by default, you receive events on all cores.

[imm (yes|no)]

Optional value in which yes means the results (printed texts in scripts) should be delivered immediately to the debugger. no means that the results can be accumulated and delivered as a couple of messages when the buffer is full; thus, it's substantially faster, but it's not real-time. By default, this value is set to yes.

[event options]

Regular event parameters that are used in HyperDbg events. (For more information, read this topic)

Context

As the Context (r8 in custom code and rdx in condition code register) to the event trigger, HyperDbg sends FALSE (0) in the case of RDTSC and TRUE (1) in the case of RDTSCP.

Debugger

This event supports three debugging mechanisms.

  • Break

  • Script

  • Custom Code

Please read "How to create a condition?" if you need a conditional event, a conditional event can be used in all "Break", "Script", and "Custom Code".

Break

We want to break and get control over all RDTSC/RDTSCP execution in our system.

HyperDbg> !tsc

Imagine we want to break on all RDTSC/RDTSCP executions of a process id 0x490.

HyperDbg> !tsc pid 490

Script

Using the following command, you can use HyperDbg's Script Engine. You should replace the string between braces (HyperDbg Script Here) with your script. You can find script examples here.

HyperDbg> !tsc script { HyperDbg Script Here }

The above command when messages don't need to be delivered immediately.

HyperDbg> !tsc script { HyperDbg Script Here } imm no

Script (From File)

If you saved your script into a file, then you can add file: instead of a script and append the file path to it. For example, the following examples show how you can run a script from file:c:\users\sina\desktop\script.txt.

HyperDbg> !tsc script {file:c:\users\sina\desktop\script.txt}

You can use event forwarding to forward the event monitoring results from this event and other events to an external source, e.g., File, NamedPipe, or TCP Socket. This way, you can use HyperDbg as a monitoring tool and gather your target system's behavior and use it later or analyze it on other systems.

Custom Code

Please read "How to create an action?" to get an idea about how to run the custom buffer code in HyperDbg.

Your custom code will be executed in vmx-root mode. Take a look at this topic for more information. Running code in vmx-root is considered "unsafe".

Run Custom Code (Unconditional)

Monitoring process id 0x490 for RDTSC/RDTSCP instruction execution and run 3 nops whenever the event is triggered. Take a look at Run Custom Code for more information.

HyperDbg> !tsc pid 490 code {90 90 90}

Run Custom Code (Conditional)

Monitoring process id 0x490 for RDTSC/RDTSCP instruction execution and runs 3 nops whenever the event condition is triggered and runs 3 nops whenever the event is triggered. Take a look at Run Custom Code and how to create a condition for more information.

HyperDbg> !tsc pid 490 code {90 90 90} condition {90 90 90}

Keep in mind that a conditional event can be used in Breaking to Debugger and Running Script too.

IOCTL

This command uses the same method to send IOCTL for regular events.

As EventType use TSC_INSTRUCTION_EXECUTION in DEBUGGER_GENERAL_EVENT_DETAIL.

Design

This command uses RDTSC (EXIT_REASON_RDTSC - 16) and RDTSCP (EXIT_REASON_RDTSCP - 51) vm-exits to implement RDTSC/RDTSCP hooks.

Remarks

None

Requirements

None

!pmc (hook RDPMC instruction execution)